Archibald Binny was an Edinburgh punchcutter who emigrated to Philadelphia in 1795. Here he met James Ronaldson, a businessman also from Edinburgh. The two Scots combined their business and technical skills to open Binny & Ronaldson, the first successful American typefoundry, in 1896. This company’s success marked the beginning of the end of America’s reliance on Europe for type. According to Updike, in 1797 the company cast the first ever dollar signs. They also produced the first American type specimen books, in 1809 and 1812.