Robert Granjon – born 1513, died 16. 11. 1589 in Rome, Italy– type founder, punch cutter, publisher.. It is assumed that Robert was the son of the Paris printer and publisher Jean Granjon. Trained as a goldsmith. From 1543 onwards: punch cutter in Paris. 1543–48: works as a steel punch cutter. 1549: his first book is published in Paris, a pocket book edition of the New Testament in Greek and Latin. 1550–51: works with type founder Michel Felandat. 1556–57: works as a punch cutter, type founder, printer and publisher in Lyon. Designs the Gothic italic typeface Civilité which earns him gream acclaim. Designs and cuts the notes ans musical symbols for a song book published in Paris. 1562: returns to Paris where he works as a a punch cutter and type founder. 1563–70: works closely with Christoph Plantin. 1565: Granjon produces his Parangonne Greque typeface at the instigation of Plantin a a counterpart to Garamond´s Grec du Roi. 1570–74: Granjon offers his typefaces for sale at the Frankfurt fair. 1578: Granjon goes to Rome at the request of Pope Gregory XIII to cut exotic type for the Vatican´s printing workshop. During his lifetime Granjon created 9 typefaces and a set of musical symbols. Whilst working as a punch cutter, Granjon designed c. 50 different alphabets, for which he cut c. 6,000 punches. * TYPOGRAPHY – An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Throughout History by Friedrich Friedl, Nicolaus Ott (Editor), Bernard Stein, published by Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.