Major Frankfurt typefoundry started by Johann Christian Bauer in 1837. By the end of the century, after a misjudgement that automation would be in typefounding, rather than typesetting, the Bauer Type Foundry would have collapsed were it not for the commencement of an adventurous type design program under its new owner George Hartmann. The 1920s and 1930s, and also the 1950s and 1960s, saw a proliferation of new designs under Heinrich Jost and Konrad Bauer (no relation), commissioned directly from artists and teachers — notably Paul Renner, Lucian Bernhard, Imre Reiner, and Emil Rudolf Weiss. A New York office was opened in 1927. The foundry closed in 1972, when the typefaces passed to its branch in Barcelona, Fundición Tipográfica Neufville.